Carlisle (left), 32, is a free-agent after leaving Turf Moor at the end of last season. He is also chairman of the Professional Footballers' Association and a vastly experienced performer with over 500 senior games during his career.
Dobie, 33, has been without a club since departing SPL outfit St Johnstone more than a year ago. He does though have six full international caps to his credt.
Meanwhile, Taylor, 18, already has Championship experience at Elland Road in addition to a short loan spell at neighbours Bradford City last season.
Carlisle's contract is understood to be until January while Dobie has agreed an initial three-month stay.
"At the end of last season I had contemplated hanging up my boots so I hadn't really entertained any offers," Carlisle told BBC Radio York.
"I changed my mind and put it out there that I would be available and I'm absolutely delighted that the manager called me.
"There's no better time to join a team than when they're on the way up."