The Frenchman, 27, was available having seen his four-month deal with Brighton expire at the end of last season.
Carole played for Monaco in Ligue 1 and in the Champions League before opting for a switch to England, firstly with West Ham on loan and then Championship side Brighton in 2005.
After one year at the Withdean he was snapped up by Leeds and thrived under Kevin Blackwell, but he struggled for opportunities when Dennis Wise took charge and left for Darlington in late 2008.
A short spell followed with the Quakers before a second stint at the Withdean saw his release at the start of the summer.
Barnes, under pressure at Prenton Park after a disappointing run of results, told the club's official website: "I'm pleased to add Seb to our squad. He's a pacy winger who will add to our attacking options."