The 25-year-old Italian has moved to the Stadium of Light for an undisclosed fee, understood to be in the region of £2million, and has signed a two-year contract.
He is expected to provide the back-up to Republic of Ireland international Keiren Westwood following Simon Mignolet's £9million switch to Liverpool.
Mannone follows Valentin Roberge, Modibo Diakite, Cabral, David Moberg Karlsson and Duncan Watmore into the club with the Black Cats' summer recruitment drive showing little sign of abating.
He arrived at Arsenal as a 17-year-old from Italian side Atalanta and made 26 senior appearances for the club, including four in the Champions League last season.
A former Italy Under-21 international, Mannone has also had loan spells at Barnsley and Hull.
New manager Paolo Di Canio is making a concerted effort to substantially rebuild the squad he inherited from Martin O'Neill this summer and there will be further new arrivals before the season gets under way.
Le Havre full-back Benjamin Mendy is expected to complete his move to Wearside later this week with club-mate El-Hadji Ba and Velez Sarsfield defender Gino Peruzzi also closing in on moves.
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