"It's making a break between non-league Stevenage Borough and Football League Stevenage Football Club," chairman Phil Wallace told BBC Three Counties Radio.
"We're still the Boro, it's still our nickname, we will always be the Boro. Everything will carry on as we are."
The club adopted the Borough title six months after it was reformed in 1976.
Wallace said the change of name was decided after their Blue Square Premier title win and promotion to League Two.
"It just seems very fitting that we go back and take that name," said Wallace.
"It's great to go back to our roots. Stevenage was formed in 1894 as Stevenage Football Club. Those guys who did that so long ago could never in their wildest dreams have thought they would be forming something that would aspire be a football league club."