The former Newcastle caretaker manager and captain takes over the role from Sir Bobby, who died in July.
Fitting tribute: Sir Bobby Robson's widow Lady Elsie Robson and former Newcastle United and England striker Alan Shearer
The foundation was set up to fund a research centre in Newcastle into the early detection of cancer. It has so far raised more than £2 million.
Shearer said: 'He was incredibly brave to put up the fight that he did over the years. He had cancer five times and to keep coming back showed what courage he had.
'This was Bobby's way of putting something back into his beloved North East, and what a fantastic success it has been. In no way am I trying to fill Sir Bobby's shoes, I can't, but if I can play any small part in its success, I will.
'I know Bobby thought a lot of me, he told me on several occasions, and I have to say the feeling was absolutely mutual.'
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