The 26-year-old was sent off for the fourth time in his career in the Magpies' 3-0 defeat to Liverpool at Anfield on Sunday.
Manager Alan Shearer entrusted the former Manchester City man to cope with the pressure on Merseyside, but was left fuming after Barton was dismissed for a reckless challenge on Xabi Alonso.
Newcastle have not divulged the reasons behind Barton's suspension, although it is believed to stem from an alleged bust-up between Shearer and the midfielder in the aftermath of the defeat.
No linkSky Sports News understands that Barton's suspension is not directly linked to his dismissal for his tackle on Alonso, but for his apparent clash with Shearer.
This latest move by Newcastle could well end Barton's career on Tyneside after he was backed by the club following his release from prison last summer.
"Newcastle United can confirm that Joey Barton has been suspended from the club until further notice," read a statement on the club's official website.
"The club will be making no further comment on the matter at this time."