The Magpies will be promoted if they win and rivals Nottingham Forest lose at Bristol City, and Barton will make his first start since mid-September as Chris Hughton's side look to keep their side of the bargain at London Road.
Barton is one of five changes to the side that beat Nottingham Forest 2-0 on Monday night.
The one-time England international replaces Jonas Gutierrez on the left of midfield, with Fabrice Pancrate preferred to Wayne Routledge on the right and Alan Smith dislodging Danny Guthrie in the middle of the park.
Shola Ameobi starts up front after scoring the opener on Monday, and the striker will be partnered by Leon Best, with Andy Carroll injured and Peter Lovenkrands rested on the bench.
PETERBOROUGH (4-5-1): Lewis; Gilbert, Zakuani, Geohaghon, Griffiths; Frecklington, Lee, Torres, Rowe, Green; Dickinson.
Subs: McKeown (gk), Day, Mills, Bennett, Simpson, Reid, Mackail-Smith.
NEWCASTLE (4-4-2): Harper; Simpson, Williamson, Coloccini, Enrique; Pancrate, Smith, Nolan, Barton; Ameobi, Best.
Subs: Krul (gk), R Taylor, Kadar, Butt, Routledge, Gutierrez, Lovenkrands.