29-year-old Barton had spent pre-season with League Two new-boys Fleetwood after being banned for QPR's opening 12 Premier League matches of the coming season.
A loan to Fleetwood and their packed fixture list, which begins against Nottingham Forest in the Capital One Cup on Monday, would have reduced the timescale of Barton's ban and seen him return from suspension by the end of September rather than November.
But Fleetwood boss Micky Mellon has ended his interest in the midfielder after being told Barton would not play in League Two.
Micky Mellon: "Joey has gone back to QPR.
"His influence in and around the football club was nothing more than fantastic.
"(He was) a great lad, up to standard for us, players saw how hard you have to work to be a Premier League footballer.
"Nothing but positives came from the time we had with Joey. We always knew it was going to come to an end at some stage.
"We did try and get him on loan. QPR did not want to do that. He has gone back to QPR and we wish Joey all the best. He will always be a friend of this football club."
Barton (on Twitter): "Fleetwood adventure is over. I loved every minute of it. Great club. Good luck to @capboy70 (Fleetwood chairman Andy Pilley), Mickey and a great set of lads for the season."