The loan is pending final clearance from the Premier League and Football League.
Evans, younger brother of United regular Jonny, has yet to make his first-team bow for the Red Devils but has appeared seven times for his country, scoring his first international goal in the Euro 2012 qualifying victory over Slovenia.
He is expected to go straight into the Cumbrians' squad for the visit of Charlton on Saturday, is the third player to make the journey from Old Trafford to Brunton Park this season.
Defender James Chester has been a fixture in the side since his loan arrival in the summer, while Evans will likely take the place of Oliver Norwood, who has been sent back to Manchester United for treatment on a thigh injury.
Carlisle manager Greg Abbott told the club's official website: "Manchester United have been absolutely fantastic in helping us out with what we think is another quality addition to the squad. He comes here ready to play and he is the kind of player who keeps us moving in the right direction.
"He has proven quality and he has already told us how much he is looking forward to being involved. We think this is a good signing at a time when we needed to add to the squad in what is a key area."