The 33-year-old Manchester City midfielder was not named by coach Raymond Domenech and joined Karim Benzema and Samir Nasri among those who missed out.
The squad will be reduced to 23 by June 1 before Les Bleus meet Uruguay on June 11 in their first Group A match. They will also play hosts South Africa and Mexico.
Disappointment: Midfielder Vieira will not be travelling to South Africa next month
Former France captain Vieira, a World Cup winner in 1998, was hopeful of inclusion after a strong second half to the season at City following his switch from Inter Milan.
But Vieira, who earned the most recent of his 107 caps in June 2009, did not earn selection.
He said: 'It's a decision I accept, although I'm disappointed. I do not question his choice, I really respect.'
Emmanuel Petit was unhappy his fellow World Cup winner and former Arsenal midfield colleague was not selected.
Petit told L'Equipe TV: 'Regarding Patrick Vieira, he could not claim a starting berth but to join the group I think it was necessary, for his experience, his record but also his personality.'
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