The 25-year-old midfielder looked set to leave Rennes for Kenny Dalglish's Reds last week but failed his Anfield medical due to a groin problem.
Marveaux has been sidelined since November but Toon boss Alan Pardew had no hesitation in snapping up the player on a free transfer.
Talk of the Toon: Sylvain Marveaux has agreed a five-year deal at Newcastle
Marveaux told the club's official website: 'This is a dream move for me and I'm very happy to be joining such a great club. As soon as I signed I couldn't wait to phone my parents in France and tell them the news. I've already sent them both Newcastle shirts.
'Newcastle United are one of the most well-known clubs in France and have a great tradition.
'I saw quite a few of the games last season and thought the team did very well in their first season back in the Premier League.
Great coup: Marveaux (right) had been tipped to join Liverpool
'I saw the stadium and thought it was magnificent. It must be a fantastic place to play and I can't wait. Of course I have heard all about the massive support at Newcastle and the passion of the fans here.
'The people at the club made me feel so welcome on Friday night when I arrived. They looked after me so well, made me feel part of the club straight away, and I thank them for that.'
Pardew has already signed Mehdi Abeid from Lens, Yohan Cabaye from Lille and West Ham striker Demba Ba while Hatem Ben Arfa is on the books at St James' Park.
Marveaux added: 'It's good for me that there are other French players here, players like Ben Arfa and Cabaye who I know, but it's a very good squad they have too.'
Newcastle raise the Ba with swoop for West Ham striker on free transferMartin Samuel: So, what's left to make the Toon swoon?Club-by-club guide to all the Barclays Premier League summer transfersPREMIER LEAGUE NEW KIT SPECIAL: Strips your team will wear in 2011-12All the latest Newcastle news, features and opinion
Explore more:People: Hatem Ben Arfa, Kenny Dalglish Places: Newcastle, Liverpool, France