The 38-year-old has spent the last two years with the Chicago Fire after returning to his homeland following four years at Craven Cottage.
"Brian's retirement is a bittersweet moment for the Fire, Major League Soccer and soccer fans around the world. His talent and contributions to US soccer in particular are incredibly vast and he will most deservedly be celebrated as one of soccer's greatest," Fire owner Andrew Hauptman told the club's website. "Brian is a consummate professional on and off the field and has tremendous passion and heart. I have great respect for him and his decision to retire, which no doubt was not an easy one. He will always have a home here at the Chicago Fire and be part of the Fire family."
McBride has represented his country in three World Cups over his 17-year professional career, scoring 30 goals in 95 international appearances from 1993-2006 to rank third on the all-time scoring list behind Eric Wynalda (34) and Landon Donovan (45).
The former Wolfsburg, Preston, and Everton striker notched 40 goals in 153 appearances for Fulham, starting 111 games, and was handed the club's captaincy in 2007. He was their top scorer in 2006/07 when his 12 goals helped the London club secure their top-flight status.
He has appeared in 211 games, scoring 78 goals and adding 51 assists over his 11-year Major League Soccer career with the Chicago Fire and Columbus Crew.