The Australian was forced off with a calf injury during the Toffees' Europa League victory over Sporting Lisbon on Tuesday.
His absence further depletes boss David Moyes' options ahead of the Barclays Premier League clash against champions Manchester United at Goodison Park.
Injury list: Cahill is just one in a long line of injuries for Moyes
Everton learned earlier this week that another influential midfielder, Marouane Fellaini, will miss the rest of the season with an ankle injury.
John Heitinga is available after missing the Sporting tie through ineligibility and Steven Pienaar returns to Premier League duty after suspension.
Tony Hibbert (groin), Victor Anichebe (back) and loan signing Philippe Senderos (back) are still out but progressing and long-term absentee Phil Jagielka (knee) is also back in training.
Provisional squad: Howard, Yobo, Baines, Distin, Neville, Pienaar, Osman, Arteta, Rodwell, Saha, Yakubu, Bilyaletdinov, Donovan, Vaughan, Gosling, Coleman, Heitinga, Baxter, Duffy, Nash.
CLICK HERE FOR ALL THE WEEKEND TEAM NEWS IN THE BARCLAYS PREMIER LEAGUE