Landmark rule changes which have shaped modern football

04 March 2016 10:53

The International Football Association Board, the body which determines the laws of the game, will meet on Saturday in Cardiff with the AGM set to vote on whether or not to approve live video trials during matches to aid officials.

Here, Press Association Sport looks at past rule changes which have helped shaped the modern game.

GOAL-LINE TECHNOLOGY

Goal-line technology was approved by IFAB in 2012 and was used in the Club World Cup in Japan later that year. Following Frank Lampard's 'goal' in the 2010 World Cup against Germany, where the ball crossed the line but was never given, then-FIFA president Sepp Blatter admitted it was a game changer. It has been used in England since 2013-14 and Edin Dzeko's goal for Manchester City against Cardiff in January 2014 was the first strike to be awarded using the technology in the Barclays Premier League.

THE BACK PASS

In response to criticism for negative tactics and time wasting at the 1990 World Cup, goalkeepers were banned from picking up a back pass two years later. The rule first came into force at the 1992 Olympics but was met with opposition as players flicked the ball into the air to head it back to the goalkeeper. FIFA responded b y making it clear any player deliberately negating it would be booked. In 1997, the rule was extended to prevent goalkeepers handling the ball from a team-mate's throw in.

THE OFFSIDE RULE

A contentious issue at the best of times, it has evolved from 1863 when "any attacking player ahead of the ball was deemed to be offside" to what we have today. At the start of the 2003-04 season, the rule was altered so that a player would not be offside provided they were not "actively involved in play". That was met with criticism and FIFA later clarified players must touch the ball to be active. It was amended to its current version in 2015 so that players in an offside position are penalised if they attempt to play the ball or affect an opponents ability to do so.

SUBSTITUTES

Charlton's Keith Peacock became the first substitute in English football history when he replaced goalkeeper Mike Rose at Bolton on August 21, 1965. The Football League had decided to allow one substitute from the start of 1965-66, although initially only to replace injured players. FIFA allowed the current number of substitutes - three - in 1995 while the amount of replacements allowed to be named on the bench increased from five to seven a year later.

PENALTIES

There was no such thing as a penalty until 1891. Modern football originated in public schools where it was assumed a gentleman would never deliberately foul an opponent. As competition increased the spot kick was introduced and was originally called the 'kick of death'. Wolves were awarded the first-ever penalty in September 1891 when John Heath scored against Accrington at Molineux.

Source: PA