Pearson, who served on the board between June 2006 and June 2007, was voted in as one of the three Championship representatives to sit on the eight-man panel, replacing the outgoing Neil Doncaster, formerly of Norwich, following the Canaries' relegation.
The Football League board consists of six divisional representatives elected by the 72 member clubs, plus two independent directors. The divisional representatives include three directors from Championship clubs, two from League One and one from League Two.
Pearson joins David Sheepshanks (Ipswich), Terry Robinson (Sheffield United), Peter Powell (Colchester), Lorraine Rogers (Tranmere) and Tony Kleanthous (Barnet) on the board. Chairman Lord Mawhinney and independent non-executive director Ian Ritchie complete the line-up.
"I am pleased to be given this opportunity. There are some talented people within the Football League, which continues to move forward on and off the pitch, and I look forward to the challenge of being on the board and everything that brings," Pearson told Derby County's official website.
"Derby County is a major player in the Championship and I am there to represent Championship clubs. Hopefully, I have got something to offer on behalf of the other Championship clubs."