The 36-year-old striker, who has made over 450 career appearances, has signed on-loan is set to make his Rams debut in the clash with neighbours Nottingham Forest on Saturday.
Glasgow-born Dickov started his career with Arsenal and has also turned out for Luton, Brighton, Manchester City (twice), Blackburn, Crystal Palace and Blackpool.
He has notched 117 goals in his career and represented his country at international level, scoring on a single occasion during 10 appearances for Scotland.
Rams manager Nigel Clough: "Paul is a hugely experienced player and will fit in perfectly with the team spirit we have in the dressing room at the moment.
"He knows this division inside out and gives us something different to what we already have at the football club."