Atkins played a full game against the Rams in the Bass Vase final last week and also turned out for the second half of Albion's friendly at Altrincham on Saturday.
But with veteran keeper Kevin Poole nearing a return to fitness after a persistent back injury, Atkins has been sent back to Derby.
"Ross did extremely well in his short time with us but we really don't have room for another keeper now that Kevin is on the mend," said Burton boss Paul Peschisolido.
"Kevin has improved a lot of late and I'm hopeful he could be involved in the first game of the season. Of course, we also have (Nottingham Forest loanee) Shane Redmond."