The 24-year-old, who finished last term on loan with the U's from Cheltenham, has put pen to paper on a three-year deal at the Community Stadium.
Vincent, who can play in attack or midfield, told the Colchester Gazette: "I was happy with my own ratio last season and I do like to score goals.
"I just want to add more of them to my game and do a job for the team.
"I think people have different opinions on what my best position is. I don't have a preference - I don't mind playing out wide or through the middle."