Coach Mano Menezes has also reopened the door for World Cup flops Maicon, Lucio and Elano, who had not played for their country since the exit to Holland in the World Cup quarter-final last summer.
Four players based in the Barclays Premier League have also been called up for the game at Arsenal's Emirates Stadium on Sunday, March 29 - but the spotlight will be on 19-year-old Neymar, who rejected a move to Chelsea in August to stay at Santos.
Samba starlet: Neymar (right) is tipped to have a bright future with five-time World Cup winners Brazil
The tricky forward, who can play up front or on either flank, was the top scorer and star performer at the South American Under 20 Championship last month.
He helped his country win the tournament in Peru and claim a place at the London 2012 Olympics, while being watched by Roman Abramovich's personal talent spotter Piet de Visser.
Brazil squad to face ScotlandGoalkeepers: Julio Cesar (Inter Milan),Jefferson (Botafogo), Victor (Gremio)
Defenders: Dani Alves (Barcelona),Maicon (Inter Milan), Andre Santos (Fenerbahce), Marcelo (Real Madrid),Thiago Silva (AC Milan), David Luiz (Chelsea), Luisao (Benfica), Lucio (Inter Milan)
Midfielders: Lucas Leiva (Liverpool), Ramires (Chelsea), Sandro (Tottenham),Henrique (Cruzeiro), Elias (Atletico Madrid), Elano (Santos), Renato Augusto (Bayer Leverkusen), Jadson (Shakhtar Donetsk), Lucas (S?o Paulo)
Forwards: Alexandre Pato (AC Milan),Nilmar (Villarreal), Neymar (Santos),Jonas (Valencia)
Chelsea's Ramires is likely to start in midfield against Scotland, alongside Liverpool's Lucas Leiva, while Stamford Bridge new boy David Luiz is expected to partner AC Milan's Thiago Silva in defence.
Tottenham midfielder Sandro is also in the 24-man party.
The most surprising omission is AC Milan forward Robinho, who has been one of Brazil's most consistent performers in recent years despite the torrid time he had a Manchester City before escaping to Italy last summer.
There is no place either for Ronaldinho, who is finding his feet at Flamengo after leaving Milan in January, nor Kaka, who is struggling for form after returning from a serious knee injury at Real Madrid.
Menezes, who replaced Dunga as coach after the World Cup, had ditched many of those who flopped last summer, but finds places for eight of the South Africa 2010 squad.
Manchester United right back Rafael da Silva is one of the young casualties as Maicon is handed a recall despite a tough season at Inter.
But 18-year-old Sao Paulo playmaker Lucas, who starred alongside Neymar in the Under 20 Championship win, gets a first call-up.
Menezes is building a side that can mature come the 2014 finals in Brazil but, more immediately, the former Corinthians coach must try out players ahead of defending the Copa America in Argentina this July, before turning his attention to London 2012, when he can only name three players aged over 23.
Hair raiser: Chelsea's Brazilian defender Luiz (left) is in the squad to face Scotland at the home of Arsenal
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Explore more:People: Robinho, Alexandre Pato, Roman Abramovich, Maicon Places: Liverpool, London, Milan, Argentina, Scotland, Italy, The Netherlands, Peru, South Africa, Brazil