Essien tore the medial ligament in his left knee while training with the Black Stars prior to the African Nations Cup in January and failed to return for Chelsea over the remainder of the season.
The 27-year-old was last week ruled out of the tournament in South Africa despite being named in the provisional 30-man squad.
"Since my injury in January I had been working hard to come back for Chelsea and Ghana, but it wasn't to be," he said on Chelsea's official website.
"I did everything I could but eventually I succumbed to the injury and had to accept the fact that the body takes its own time to heal and you cannot rush things.
"I had my last assessment over a week ago with the Chelsea and Ghana doctors present.
"It took place at the hotel where all the Ghanaian players were staying and coming out of that meeting was very emotional for me.
"I spoke to Stephen Appiah, the captain, and all the other guys about my inability to join them and you could tell how disappointed they were.
"I have to admit no one was more disappointed than me but that's life and I have to move on.
"I would like to wish the Black Stars the best of luck in South Africa. They need our support and all Ghanaians should get behind them."