The Blues conceded three Bolton strikes in eight second-half minutes at Stamford Bridge in the Premier League on Saturday as Guus Hiddink's side almost blew a four-goal lead.
But Carvalho - who is expected to line up in the heart of the Chelsea defence against Liverpool in the absence of suspended captain John Terry - insists there will not be a repeat when the Reds come calling in the UEFA Champions League on Tuesday.
Chelsea hold a 3-1 aggregate advantage from the first leg of their European quarter-final, and Liverpool must therefore score at least three goals to progress.
However, Carvalho is adamant Chelsea will be watertight at the back following the wake-up call against Bolton, saying: "We have to learn from those mistakes.
"It is good to play three days after that game. We conceded too many when normally we are strong in our back four."
Terry absenceThe Portuguese centre-back admits Terry will be missed, but he is confident that Chelsea can cope without their skipper.
"We will miss John but we can't change the rules, he got suspended so we have to try our best," he added. "The back four has to be compact and play as normal."
Carvalho, who won the competition in 2004 with former club Porto, is also refusing to allow for complacency as Chelsea, last season's runners up, bid to lift their first European Cup.
"We have to be aware, this competition means a lot for us so we want to go through," he said.
"We have to think first of ourselves and after look for them, but if you are in good shape you can win the game and go through.
"We are improving always, we had some problems in the previous months but I think you become stronger and now we are in good shape to win a competition for the club."