The Manchester United centre-back continues to be hampered by a calf injury and will not travel with the squad for the weekend clash in Almaty as the Three Lions look to strengthen their grip on top spot in Group Six.
England boss Fabio Capello has brought in Bolton defender Cahill to replace Ferdinand, although the Red Devils ace has not yet been ruled out of Wednesday's Wembley meeting with Andorra.
Under-21 international Cahill has twice been named in Capello's provisional squad before missing out on the final cut and this is the first time he will be involved in the senior set-up.
"I am really looking forward to the opportunity," the former Aston Villa player told the FA's official website.
Determined"I know a couple of the lads already like James Milner, Ashley Young and Gareth Barry. It's come around so quickly that I haven't had the time to take it all in, but no doubt that when I'm sat in the hotel room tonight then it will hit home that I'm actually in the England squad.
"I'm just looking forward to going down there and doing my very best. I'm thankful that I have got the chance and I'm determined to take it with both hands.
"I've had a good season and I've worked really hard. I've been in the provisional squad twice before and then this third time I was included once again, so I'm obviously delighted to get the call. Making the squad is an achievement that I'm very proud of."
Cahill now joins Matthew Upson and Joleon Lescott as the players competing for a place alongside skipper John Terry at centre-back for the clash against Kazakhstan.
The rest of Capello's squad have trained, including Chelsea full-back Ashley Cole, who sat out Monday after taking a kick during the FA Cup final at the weekend.