The Trotters spurned chances before going down 1-0 at the Reebok after Maxi Rodriguez netted a late winner.
Cahill believes Bolton were also unlucky in the 1-1 draws against Wigan and West Brom, but he is feeling positive for the future.
The England defender told the club's official website: "There are a lot of positives we can take away from the Liverpool game.
"It shows how far we've come this season. If you ask the Liverpool manager I'm sure he'll say he's over the moon with the three points.
"But not only that, we had a number of chances ourselves and had we taken them it could have been a completely different story.
"We're just not getting the rub of the green at the moment. At West Brom and Wigan we've been unfortunate with offside decisions where we could have not only ended up with a clean sheet, but three points too."
Owen Coyle's side currently sit in tenth in the table, with 12 points from their opening ten games.
In a tight table, just six points separate 14 teams and Cahill is eyeing a victory in Saturday's home tie with Tottenham, which is being shown live on Sky Sports.
He added: "It's such a tight league at the moment. We won't get down about the result because we know a couple of wins on the spin you're soon right back up there.
"We've got Tottenham next and we're at home again and we've got to be looking at picking up three points. We've proved this season we are a difficult side to play against."
As well as the Spurs game, Bolton also face trips to Everton and Wolves in the space of eight days and Cahill believes the Trotters have got strength in depth to cope with the challenges ahead.
He added: "We've got such a strong group of players at the moment and that's important.
"We've got players on the bench who are more than capable of coming in changing the game and players who can fill in when needed."