Miklosko made 375 appearances for the Hammers during a seven-year period at the club before joining the coaching staff at Upton Park in 2001.
Hitchcock, who held a similar post at Blackburn and Manchester City, will take charge of coaching West Ham's number one stopper Robert Green as the Hammers look to avoid relegation from the Barclays Premier League.
Helping hand: Ludek Miklosko (left) has left West Ham to be replaced by Kevin Hitchcock (right) as goalkeeping coach for Robert Green (below)
A statement on the club's official website read: 'West Ham United can confirm that coach Ludek Miklosko has left the club with immediate effect.
'Kevin Hitchcock, who spent time on loan at the club back in March 1993, has been appointed as a goalkeeping coach until the end of the season.
'With respect to all parties involved, the club will be making no further comment until the terms of his departure are confirmed.'
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