Blackburn goalkeeper Robinson will return to his club following a hip problem, while Lescott heads back to Manchester City after a calf problem he picked up in the Premier League draw at Aston Villa on Monday night.
With Ben Foster's omission explained as a chest injury, Hart has been rewarded for a solid start to his loan period at Birmingham.
Bolton centre-back Cahill, meanwhile, travelled to Kazakhstan in June with the seniors but is yet to make his England debut for Fabio Capello's men, but will hope to be involved against Ukraine on Saturday and Wednesday's clash with Belarus.
Robert Green was the only England goalkeeper training on the first day of preparations for the World Cup qualifiers, with David James also being treated for a knock.
West Ham goalkeeper Green has started the last five England games and has mounted a challenge for James' number one jersey, having taken advantage of the Portsmouth goalkeeper needing a shoulder operation and suffering a knee injury.
James and Ashley Cole were present at Arsenal's London Colney complex but received treatment for their knocks and are expected to train on Wednesday.
Capello's other 22 players trained, with Hart and Cahill travelling south to join their team-mates.
Defoe World Cup Specials Top Scorer: Defoe Top Scorer in WC Finals 2010 33/1