Robinson, retired from international duty, showed what Fabio Capello what he was missing in a game that saw his opposite number and current England number one Joe Hart make a howler.
Robinson had no chance when Patrick Vieira equalised for City in the 55th minute but the same could not be said of Hart, who earlier allowed Ivan Kalinic to roll into an empty net following an embarrassing mix-up with Kolo Toure.
Robinson was in action after just two minutes, James Milner feeding the ball out to Adam Johnson who cut inside at pace before unleashing a shot the Rovers stopper did well to block.
City maintained the momentum and Carlos Tevez released Shaun Wright-Phillips only for the midfielder to drill his effort wide.
Tevez then tested Robinson before Johnson found the wrong side of the post after he was sent clear by Milner and tried to curl the ball beyond the goalkeeper.
City kept up the pressure and Johnson floated in an inswinging corner in the 23rd minute but Vincent Kompany's effort was deflected to safety.
A minute later Blackburn went ahead after the mix up involving Joe Hart and Kolo Toure following a long ball from Morten Gamst Pedersen. Kalinic took advantage for a simple tap-in.
And they came close to extending their lead in the 30th minute when Michel Salgado chipped the ball into the path of Mame Biram Diouf, the slightly off-balance striker scuffing a shot wide from close range.
Play switched back down the other end and Wright-Phillips rattled in a shot that Robinson was equal to before Blackburn replaced Ryan Nelsen with Olsson following a tough tackle.
Olsson came on at full-back with Gael Givet switching to the middle to partner Chris Samba.
Robinson denied Johnson again with a block in the 54th minute but City drew level a minute later when Vieira and Tevez played a neat one-two. Blackburn failed to pick up Vieira as he broke forward and it was a sweet finish by the former Inter Milan and Arsenal midfielder.
It was only Vieira's second goal for City since his arrival in the January transfer window - and a timely one at that.
Tevez then twice got into good positions in quick succession, only to see both shots from inside the area cleared to safety.
Blackburn were pinned back again and Robinson continued his good work by turning away a powerful shot from substitute Gareth Barry.
Jo then saw a shot blocked while Tevez failed to test Robinson from close range.
Blackburn were dangerous on the break and Kalinic forced a brave save from Hart inside the six yard area in the 80th minute.
Back came City and Robinson again to the rescue two minutes from time as he took the ball off Kolo Toure's toes.
Then Tevez saw his effort blocked by Givet in stoppage time and the rebound fell to Jo but his shot was blocked as Samba threw his body in the way.