The Scottish international has put pen to paper on a two-year deal with Alex McLeish's side. Glasgow-born Burke, aged 27, has previously played for McLeish during his spell with Rangers.
He joined Cardiff midway through the 2008-09 campaign but has now left the club after failing to agree a new contract.
Drop the Bird: Cardiff's Chris Burke has gone from Bluebirds to Blues by joining Birmingham
Burke will be reunited with central defender Roger Johnson, who played for the Bluebirds before moving to St Andrew's two years ago.
Burke played in the Champions League during his spell at Ibrox and tasted Scottish Premier League and League Cup success during a nine-year stay at his boyhood club.
He was an integral part of a Cardiff side that came close to achieving promotion to the top flight on several occasions. His two Scotland caps and goals both came in the Kirin Cup in Japan in 2006.
Northern Exposure: Republic of Ireland for sale! A buyer's guide to those up for grabs.Zigic heading for Birmingham exit as club makes cuts following relegationSunderland must cough up ?14m for Birmingham defender Johnson
Explore more:People: Roger Johnson, Alex McLeish Places: Birmingham, Glasgow, Cardiff, Scotland, Japan Organisations: Scottish Premier League