The 31-year-old has been rewarded with another 12 months after scoring nine goals last season in the Tykes' successful relegation fight.
Barnsley manager Simon Davey told the club's official website: "Jon is an important member of our squad and has proved that with 17 goals in the last two seasons for us.
"I'm delighted that he has committed himself to what we're trying to achieve here at Oakwell for another 12 months."
Macken started out at Manchester United as a trainee before a four-year spell at Preston earned him a £5million switch to Manchester City in 2002.
He has since had a spell at Crystal Palace and a loan stint at Ipswich before joining Derby in 2007.
Macken said: "Working with Simon Davey has been great. He is a very good manager and was more disappointed than anyone with our results at times last season and the late goals we let in along the way. We are looking to put that right next season and move forward."
Macken added: "It was an easy decision really. I have fully enjoyed my time here.
"I enjoyed playing last season even though it didn't work out how we all wanted and we only avoided relegation on the last day of the season. I enjoyed every game I played and I'm looking forward to next season.
"It was good to get nine goals last season and I would like a few more next time around. That is my starting point and I want to push on and move the team forward next season."